Thursday, March 16, 2017

Jallikattu is an Indian sport

Valmiki addresses Rama as काकुस्थ at several places to tell that he is from the lineage of Raja Kaakusta.
The real name of काकुस्थ was Puranjaya son of vikushi alias sasaada( rabbit eater).
Indra requested Puranjaya to help him in his fight with asuras. Puranjaya asked for a suitable vahana. Indra immediately agreed & became a bull.
Puranjaya fought asuras mounting on the hump of the bull. Thus he earned the name काकुस्थ ..
Hump is called ककुद् .

My inferences are:

1) Jallikattu is existing before Ramayana days itself, because in jallikattu also participants hold on to the hump in the game.Thus  it cannot be attributed to Tamilnadu alone.. It is an Indian sport altogether.

2) emperors from kaakusta lineage were called  Kaakvansh & later became the rulers of Tamilnadu too. In Tamil they are called as kaakatiyaas.This includes Samudra Gupta too who extended his territory upto today's Salem. Later his grandson defeated Chola king & in turn he was defeated by Pandiya king. That is why this sport is very famous in present day Chola  & Pandiya kingdoms ( Tanjore, Trichy, Madurai etc) whereas this is not that popular in pallava & chera kingdoms ( Chennai , kerala) Thus it is evident that the sport came to TN from North.

more about this here:

काकुस्थमिक्ष्वाकुरघूंश्च यद्दधत्पुराऽभवत्त्रिप्रवरं रघोः कुलम् ।
कालादपि प्राप्य स काकराणतां प्ररूढतुर्यं प्रवरं बभूव तत् ॥
"इक्ष्वाकु, काकुस्थ और रघु नाम से प्रसिद्ध कुल (वंश) ही कलियुग में काकराण के नाम से प्रचलित हुआ।"
दक्षिण में काकवंश - इस काकवंश का दक्षिण में होना ईस्वी सन् से कई सदियों पहले का माना गया है। राजपूत युग में इस वंश के वेटमराज नामक महापुरुष उपनाम त्रिभुवनमल ने महामंडलेश्वर की उपाधि धारण करके वरंगल को अपनी राजधानी बनाया। इनके पुत्र परोलराज का संवत् 1174 में लिखवाया हुआ शिलालेख मिला है जिस पर बहुत सी विजयों का वर्णन है। इसने अपने राज्य की भूमि को तालाबों से सींचे जाने का प्रबन्ध करके यश उपार्जित किया। इसके पुत्र रुद्र ने मैलिगीदेव का राज्य जीता और दोम्भ को हराया। संवत् 1219 और 1242 के शिलालेख इन घटनाओं को सम्पुष्ट करते हैं। दक्षिणी नरेशों में इसका स्थान विशिष्ट था। इसने अपनी विशाल एवं सुशिक्षित सेना के बल पर पूर्व में कटक, पश्चिम में समुद्र, उत्तर में मलयवन्त और दक्षिण में सेलम तक अपने राज्य की सीमायें बढा ली थीं। इसकी मृत्यु होने पर इसके भाई महादेव ने कुछ दिन राज्य किया। महादेव के पुत्र गणपति ने संवत् 1255 में राज्य पाकर चोल राज्य को जीता और दक्षिण के प्राचीन राज्यवंशों से वैवाहिक सम्बन्ध स्थिर किए। पांड्यों से इसे हानि उठानी पड़ी। इनकी दानमहिमा और सिंचाई विभाग के प्रति सतर्कता प्रसिद्ध रही।

SB 10.58.34

tam srutva vrsa-jil-labhyam
 bhagavan satvatam patih
jagama kausalya-puram
 sainyena mahata vrtah
 
Translation: 
 
When the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of the Vaisnavas, heard of the princess who was to be won by the conqueror of the bulls, He went to the capital of Kausalya with a large army.

सत्यां गत्वा पुनरुदहवो नानजिननन्दनां तां बध्वा सप्तापि च वृषवरान् सप्तमूर्तिर्निमेषात्। ...॥
नारायणीयं ८१.४
Oh Krishna! You went to Kosala, controlled & tied 7 big bulls and married Satyaa, the daughter of Nagnajit.
-Narayaneeyam 81.4


Srimad bhagavatam:
श्रीमद्भाजवतम् (१०–५८)

नग्नजिन्नाम कौशल्य आसीद्राजातिधार्मिकः  ।
तस्य सत्याभवत्कन्या देवी नाग्नजिती नृप ॥५८.३२॥
न तां शेकुर्नृपा वोढुमजित्वा सप्तगोवृषान्  ।
तीक्ष्णशृङ्गान् सुदुर्धर्षान् वीर्यगन्धासहान् खलान् ॥५८.३३॥
तां श्रुत्वा वृषजिल्लभ्यां भगवान् सात्वतां पतिः  ।
जगाम कौशल्यपुरं सैन्येन महता वृतः ॥५८.३४॥
स कोशलपतिः प्रीतः प्रत्युत्थानासनादिभिः  ।
अर्हणेनापि गुरुणा पूजयन् प्रतिनन्दितः ॥५८.३५॥
वरं विलोक्याभिमतं समागतं नरेन्द्रकन्या चकमे रमापतिम्  ।
भूयादयं मे पतिराशिषोऽनलः करोतु सत्या यदि मे धृतो व्रतः ॥५८.३६॥
यत्पादपङ्कजरजः शिरसा बिभर्ति   शृईरब्यजः सगिरिशः सह लोकपालैः  ।
लीलातनुः स्वकृतसेतुपरीप्सया यः   कालेऽदधत्स भगवान्मम केन तुष्येत् ॥५८.३७॥
अर्चितं पुनरित्याह नारायण जगत्पते  ।
आत्मानन्देन पूर्णस्य करवाणि किमल्पकः ॥५८.३८॥
श्रीशुक उवाच
तमाह भगवान् हृष्टः कृतासनपरिग्रहः  ।
मेघगम्भीरया वाचा सस्मितं कुरुनन्दन ॥५८.३९॥
श्रीभगवानुवाच
नरेन्द्र याच्ञा कविभिर्विगर्हिता राजन्यबन्धोर्निजधर्मवर्तिनः  ।
तथापि याचे तव सौहृदेच्छया कन्यां त्वदीयां न हि शुल्कदा वयम् ॥५८.४०॥
श्रीराजोवाच
कोऽन्यस्तेऽभ्यधिको नाथ कन्यावर इहेप्सितः  ।
गुणैकधाम्नो यस्याङ्गे श्रीर्वसत्यनपायिनी ॥५८.४१॥
किन्त्वस्माभिः कृतः पूर्वं समयः सात्वतर्षभ  ।
पुंसां वीर्यपरीक्षार्थं कन्यावरपरीप्सया ॥५८.४२॥
सप्तैते गोवृषा वीर दुर्दान्ता दुरवग्रहाः  ।
एतैर्भग्नाः सुबहवो भिन्नगात्रा नृपात्मजाः ॥५८.४३॥
यदिमे निगृहीताः स्युस्त्वयैव यदुनन्दन  ।
वरो भवानभिमतो दुहितुर्मे श्रियःपते ॥५८.४४॥
एवं समयमाकर्ण्य बद्ध्वा परिकरं प्रभुः  ।
आत्मानं सप्तधा कृत्वा न्यगृह्णाल्लीलयैव तान् ॥५८.४५॥
बद्ध्वा तान् दामभिः शौरिर्भग्नदर्पान् हतौजसः  ।
व्यकर्सल्लीलया बद्धान् बालो दारुमयान् यथा ॥५८.४६॥
ततः प्रीतः सुतां राजा ददौ कृष्णाय विस्मितः  ।
तां प्रत्यगृह्णाद्भगवान् विधिवत्सदृशीं प्रभुः ॥५८.४७॥
राजपत्न्यश्च दुहितुः कृष्णं लब्ध्वा प्रियं पतिम्  ।
लेभिरे परमानन्दं जातश्च परमोत्सवः ॥५८.४८॥
शङ्खभेर्यानका नेदुर्गीतवाद्यद्विजाशिषः  ।
नरा नार्यः प्रमुदिताः सुवासःस्रगलङ्कृताः ॥५८.४९॥
दशधेनुसहस्राणि पारिबर्हमदाद्विभुः  ।
युवतीनां त्रिसाहस्रं निष्कग्रीवसुवाससम् ॥५८.५०॥
नवनागसहस्राणि नागाच्छतगुणान् रथान्  ।
रथाच्छतगुणानश्वानश्वाच्छतगुणान्नरान् ॥५८.५१॥
दम्पती रथमारोप्य महत्या सेनया वृतौ  ।
स्नेहप्रक्लिन्नहृदयो यापयामास कोशलः ॥५८.५२॥
श्रुत्वैतद्रुरुधुर्भूपा नयन्तं पथि कन्यकाम्  ।
भग्नवीर्याः सुदुर्मर्षा यदुभिर्गोवृषैः पुरा ॥५८.५३॥
तानस्यतः शरव्रातान् बन्धुप्रियकृदर्जुनः  ।
गाण्डीवी कालयामास सिंहः क्षुद्रमृगानिव ॥५८.५४॥
पारिबर्हमुपागृह्य द्वारकामेत्य सत्यया  ।
रेमे यदूनामृषभो भगवान् देवकीसुतः ॥५८.५५॥

References of ककुद् are here:


62. tri-kakud-dhAma

There are three words in this name - trikakub or kakut, and dhAma

tri means three; kakub means the direction or quarter of a compass (for example); kakut means the hump (such as the hump on the back of a bull, or a peak or mountain); kakub and kakut also are interchangeably used for either meaning. dhAma means abode or residence, and also a ray of light or brilliance. Several interpretations arise depending on the choice of the meanings.

We will start with dhAma meaning brilliance. Sri Bhattar indicates that if this meaning is used, dhAma will have to be considered as a separate nAma. The first part is then interpreted as tri-kakut, which refers to the incarnation of BhagavAn as the varAha, the Boar with three horns. This interpretation for tri-kakut is supported by the following sloka from moksha dharma in the mahAbhArata -

tathaiva Asam tri-kakudo vArAham rUpam Asthitah |
trikakut tena vikhyAtah SarIrasya pramApaNAt || moksha dharma
 343-63.

"Then I assumed the form of a Boar with three horns. So I became known as 'tri-kakut'. With that form I killed the rAkshasa."

Sri Bhattar gives the above only as an alternative interpretation, but does not interpret the phrase tri-kakud-dhaAma as two separate words as explained above. Sri Sankara also interprets tri-kakub-dhAma as one nAma.

One interpretation Sri Bhattar gives for tri-kakud-dhAma is One who has as His abode parama-pada, which is thrice as large as this universe. An alternative interpretation given is that the three parts refer to the three groupings of the six guNas (jnAna, bala, aisvarya, vIrya, Sakti, tejas), and since He is the abode of these three groups of guNas, He is tri-kakud-dhAma.

Sri Sankara gives the interpretation that He is the base or support for the three regions of the entire space, the upper, the lower, and the middle, and therefore He is tri-kakud-dhAma.

Sri Chinmaya gives the vedAntic interpretation that He is the base or support for the three states of consciousness, viz., the jAgrat, svapna, and sushupti, and this is why He is called tri-kakud-dhAma.

2) In linga purana: http://www.kamakoti.org/kamakoti/articles/STOTRA_KAVACHA.pdf

Vishnu praising shiva thus:

Balaabala samuhaaya Akshobhyakshobanaayacha, Deepta shringaika shringaaya Vrishabhaaya kakuthiney/ 


Kalaa kaashthaa nimeshaascha Nakshatraani yugaanicha, Vrishaanaam Kakudam twam hi gireenaam shikharaanicha/

In vishnu kruta Shiva sahasranama:

Mundo Virupo Vikruto Dandi Kundi Vikurvanah, Vaaryakshah Kakubho Vajree Deepta Tejaah Sahasrapaat/

In devi Bhagavati sahasranama:

Maha Nidraa Samudbhudabhutiranidraa Satya Devataa, Deerghaa Kakudyuni Hridyaa Shaantidaa Shaantivardhini/

In Lalita Trishati:

Kandarpa Vidya Kandarpa Janakaapaanga Veekshanaa Karpoora veetee Sourabhya Kallolitha Kakuptataa

3) In Navagraha sukta for mars:

Agnirmurdhvaah Kakuppatih Prithivyaa Ayam, Apaagum retaamsi jinvati/ ;