Sunday, May 10, 2015

ashta marga of Budhism


DivisionEightfold factorSanskrit, PaliDescription
Pāli: paññā)
1. Right viewsamyag dṛṣṭi,
sammā ditthi
Viewing reality as it is, not just as it appears to be
2. Right intentionsamyag saṃkalpa,
sammā sankappa
Intention of renunciation, freedom and harmlessness
Ethical conduct
Pāli: sīla)
3. Right speechsamyag vāc,
sammā vāca
Speaking in a truthful and non-hurtful way
4. Right actionsamyag karman,
sammā kammanta
Acting in a non-harmful way
5. Right livelihoodsamyag ājīvana,
sammā ājīva
A non-harmful livelihood
(Sanskrit and Pāli:samādhi)
6. Right effortsamyag vyāyāma,
sammā vāyāma
Making an effort to improve
7. Right mindfulnesssamyag smṛti,
sammā sati
Awareness to see things for what they are with clear consciousness;
being aware of the present reality within oneself, without any craving or aversion
8. Right concentrationsamyag samādhi,
sammā samādhi
Correct meditation or concentration, explained as the first four jhānas
In those days changing the religion was called margam-kutal in Tamil. The religion in Tamil Nadu was saivism.  People were known as Saiva-pillais because they were worshipers of
Siva. When some Saiva-pillais embrased Budhism they were called Marga-pillais.  Later
this word got shortened as Maappilai. Some people mistook this word as Makal Pillai or

Afterwords this word was used to denote any converted person lile Jonaka Mappilai,
(Muslim), Nazrani Mappilai,(Christian),Juta Mappilai, (Jews) and so on.

I was born in a  Barhmin Agraharam at Kaladi. Any upper caste Hindu, a Christian, or a
Muslim can pass through this agraharam.  But not the Schedule Caste Hindus like Parayan or Pulayan.  Some times, a Schedule Caste woman say named Chiruta would
come in our street.  When challenged how she dared to enter the agraharam, she would
say that she has joined the margam (jnan margam kuti kazhinju)  and her current name was Mary and not Chiruta.

One of the reasons why Sir C.P.Ramaswamy Iyer annonced the Temple Entry Proclamation
in Travancore was to stop Hindu Sheduled Caste people getting converted as Christians.