Our planet not only goes around the sun but also rotates on it's own axis.
Sun rise and Sun set are caused by the rotation of earth on it's own axis.
At every instant of time , there will be Sunrise at one place and Sunset at another place.
At Sunrise , rays of Sun will hit that part of the earth for the first time for that day , resulting in release of energies .
Similarly at Sun set there will be withdrawal of energies.
Sun rise constitutes a change from 'darkness' to 'light' and hence constitutes a 'Sandhya' i.e junction. Similarly sun set is also a 'Sandhya' i.e. a junction.
Upanishads speak very highly of Sandhya times. It says that benefits are far more during Sandhya times than that at other times. Recent researches have also brought out abundant release of beneficial energy at sun rise and withdrawal of non-beneficial energy at sun set.
Though Upanishads refer to two Sandhya-names Sun rise and Sun set , the sages have added one more 'Sandhya' namely 'Madhyanika' or mid-day.
Sun rises in east , moves upward , reaches zenith , and then descends to west.
The point at zenith represents change from upwards to downwards.
This sandhya is considered to be beneficial for worship of 'Pithru Devatas' - that is devatas who are instrumental for one to get son , grandson , etc and also one to be a son or grandson , etc.
Prayers at Sandhya time are called "Sandhyavandanam" .The main objective of Sandhyavandanam is to avail benefits of Sandhya for an individual.
References are there regarding 'Sandhyavandanam' in Thaithria , Ishavasya and Chandogya Upanishads.
They all bring out the importance of offering 'Arghya' meditating on 'Adithya'.
This form of worship will help an individual to acquire the qualities of 'Adithya'-
namely lustrous and healthy body and mind ,
high intellect with grasping power , high intuition , memory etc.
The present day studies of Naturopathy , like Pranic Healing , Reiki etc have brought out the role of Bio- electricity in humans in regard to health.
The purification measures in 'Sandhyavandanam' are essentially to strengthen this aspect and condition the body to receive the beneficial cosmic radiations.
'Achamanam' helps in the flow of bio-electricity within the body.
'Pranayamam' helps to activate the chakras.
'Prasanam' is swallowing energized water and
'Prokshanam' is sprinkling of energized water.
'Sandhyavandanam' starts with purification process so that the benifits of 'Arghyam' and 'Gayathri' are realised.
Though Sandhya time refers to sun rise and sun set , it's benefit spreads on either side of this point.Under Indian situations , approximately two hours on either side is beneficial.
A 'Hymn' or 'Mantra' is a prayer ( With words and alphabets specifically chosen) addressed to God or Deity .
It is supposed to have mystic and supernatural powers. The energy from the universe is present everywhere .
By reciting a Mantra either orally or mentally , we tune ourselves to receive this energy .
The hymns chosen for Sandhyavandanam are meant to realize the benefits of Sandhya.
Every Mantra has a Chandas - the Chandas explains the potential of the Mantra or the power it can create in our body by receiving it.
Achamanam, that is, sipping of the water with the above mantras, one sipping for each mantra, will remove all the ills of the body-and mind. This is called Namatrayividya or the worship with the three names, which will cure all diseases, physical and mental. There is a well-known sloka to the effect that the medicine constituting the repetition of the three names of the Lord Achyuta, Ananta and Govinda will certainly cure all diseases.
Next comes Pranayama, i. e. Control of Prana.
Om Bhuh / Om Bhuvah / Om Suvaha / Om Mahah / Om Janah / Om Tapah / Om Satyam / Om Tat Saviturvarenyam Bhargo Devasya Dhimahi / Dhiyo yo Nah Prachodayat / Om Apo Jyoti-rasomritam Brahma Bhurbhuvassuvarom.
The forefinger and the middle finger should be bent and by the thumb and second finger, the nose must be touched, on either side, the right nostril should be closed and air must be taken slowly by the left nostril and then that should be closed and after a time the air slowly sent out by the right nostril. The inhaling is called Puraka, the retaining Kumbhaka and the exhaling Rechaka. The proportion of time of these three viz. Puraka, Kumbhaka and Rechaka should be in the ratio 1: 3: 2.
Apohishta mayo bhuvah / ta na oorje dadhatana maheranaya chakshase / yo vah sivatamorasah / Tasya bhajayateha nah / Usateeriya Matarah / Tasma arangamama vah yasya kshayayajinvatha / Apo janayatha cha nah / Om Bhurbhuvos suvah.
With the second finger of the right hand write the letter Om on Water and uttering the word Sri kesavaya namah touch the centre of the brows with that very finger.
With the first seven mantras sprinkle water on the head with the second finger. Reciting the eighth Mantra touch ,the feet with the second finger. Reciting the ninth mantra sprinkle water again on the head. Then repeating the mantra - Om Bhurbhuvassuvah make a circuit of your head.
Om bhurbhuvassuvah / Tat Saviturvarenyam bhargo devasya dhimahi / dhiyo yo naha prachodayaat //
With this mantra, before sunrise take water filling both hands and pour thrice to the East. At noon, you must stand facing north and pour water twice. At night before sunset in a sitting posture, the thumb should be apart when offering the arghya.
Pranayamamah // Om bhuh + bhurbhuvassuvarom Arghyam / Om bhurbhuvassuvah + dhiyo yo nah prachodayaat Om bhurbhuvasvah //
Then Pranayama should be done and then the Prayaschittarghya must be poured afterwards uttering, Om bhurbhuvassuvah.
Circumambulate the head with water.
Asavadityo Brahma / Brahmaivaasmi//
With the two hands touch the breast, close the eyes and deeply meditate on the truth that the Jeevatman and Paramatman are one.
Asau - This
Adityah - Sun
Brahma -Is Brahma
Aham -I also
Brahmaiva -Verily Brahman
Do Achamanam after that
Adityam tarpayami/ Somam tarpayami / Angarakam tarpayami / Budham tarpayami / Brihaspatim tarpayami /Sukram tarpayami /Sanaischaram tarpayami / Rahum tarpayami / Ketum tarpayami
Kesavam tarpayami / Narayanam tarpayami / Madhavam tarpayami / Govindam tarpayami / Vishnum tarpayami / Madhusoodanam tarpayami / Trivikramam tarpayami / Vamanam tarpayami / Sreedharam tarpayami / Hrishikesam tarpayami Damodaram tarpayami//
Suklambaradharam Vishnum sasivarnam chaturbhujam
prasannavadanam dhyayet sarvavighnopa - santhaye//
Om bhu + Bhurbhuvassuvarom // (Pranayamah)
Mamopatta - samasta - duritakshayadwara Sriparameswara preetyartham Pratah Sandhya - Gayatri – Mahamantra-japam karishye/ .
Aayatwityanuvakasya Vamadeva Rishih / Anushtup Chhandah/ Gayatri Devata/
Aayaatu Varada Devi Aksharam Brahmasammitam/ Gayatri Chhandasam Mataridam Brahma Juhaswa Nah/ Ojosi Sahosi Balamasi Bhrajosi Devanam Dhama Namasi viswamasi viswayuh sarvamasi sarvayu-rabhibhoorom Gayatri mavahayami Savitrimavahayami
Reciting this mantra, the Gayatri Devi should, be thought of as manifesting in the lotus of the heart. With the sign of invocation, the hands should be turned inwards in front of the heart.
Savitriya Rishirvishivamitrah / Nichrudgayatri Chhandah/ Savita Devata //.
Savitriyah - Of the Savitri mantra (i.e. the Gayatri mantra)
Rishirvishwamitrah - Vishwamitra is the Rishi.
Nichrugayatri Chhandah –The Nichrud Gayatri is the metre.
Savita Devata - And Sun is the deity.
Dhiyo yo Naha
Praatah Sandhya, (Aditya), (Saayam Sandhya) Upasthanam karishye
// Uttame shikhare Devi bhoomyaam parvata-moordhani /Brahmanebhyo hyanujnaanam gachha Devi yathaa sukham //
After the japam of Gayatri, the prayer to that deity to go to her own place is called Gayatri Upasthanam. First of all the Pranayama must be done.
Mitrasya charshani dhritah sravo devasya saanasim / Satyam Chitrasravastamam//
Mitro janam yaatayati prajaanan Mitro daadhaara Prithivee mutadyaam / Mitrah krishtee - ranimishaabhichashte Satyaaya havyam ghritavadvidhema//
Pra Sa Mitra Marto Astu Payaswaan Yasta Aditya Sikshati Vratena / Na Hanyate Na Jeeyate Twoto Nainama-gumho Asnotyantito Na Dooraat//
After japam fold your hands and stand facing the East; then worship the Paramatma inside the Solar Orb with the following mantra: -
Sandhyaayai namah / Saavitryai namah / Gaayatryai namah / Saraswatyai namah / Sarvaabhyo Devataabhyo namo namah //
After Japam the mantras Sandyaayai namah etc. should be uttered folding the hands beginning with the quarter, which one faces at the time of the japam. Finally looking to that very quarter Sarvaabhyo Devataabhyo namah and kamokaarsh- eenmanyurakaarsheennamo namah should be uttered with folded hands.
Praachyai Dise Namah // Dakshinaayai Dise Namah / Prateechyai Dise Namah // Udeechyai Dise Namah // Oordhwaaya Namah // Adharaaya Namah // Antarikshaaya Namah Bhoomyai Namah Brahmane Namah // Vishnave Namah // Mrityave Namah
Beginning from the quarter facing which the japa was done, the four quarters are saluted as well as the upper side and lower side and the middle portion and the Gods or the quarters, and afterwards the earth and the three Gods Brahma, Vishnu and, Siva.
Yamaaya Namah Yamaaya Dharmarajaaya Matyave Chhantakaaya cha // Vaivaswataaya Kaalaaya Sarvabhootakshaaya cha //
Oudumbaraaya Dadhnaaya Neelaaya parameshtine // Vrikodaraaya Chitraaya Chitragupaaya Vai Namah // Chitraguptaaya Vai Nama Om Nama Iti //
This mantra should be uttered facing the South.
Ritagum Satyam Param Brahma Purusham Krishna-pingalam // Oorddhwaretam Viroopaksham Viswaroopaya Vai Namo Namah // Viswaroopaaya Vai Namo Nama Om Nama Iti //
Facing the north and standing with folded hands this mantra should be uttered.
Ritagum -The beauty in things seen
Satyam -The basis of sight.
Param Brahma -Para Brahma (Supreme Being)
Purusham -Dwelling in all bodies.
Krishna Pingalam -The dark Lord Krishna and the red Shiva united as Harihar
Namah Savitre Jagadeka Chakshushe Jagat-prasooti-sthiti-naasa-hetave, trayee mayaaya trigunaatma-dhaarine Virinchi Naamayana-Sankaratmane, Dhyeyah Sadaa Savitrumandalamadhyavartee Naarayanah Sarasijaasana-Samnivishlah //
Keyuravan Makarakundalavaan Kiritee Haaree Hiranmaya-vapur-dhritha sankha-chakrah.Sankha-Chakra - Gadaapaano Dwarakaanilayaachyata // Govinda Pundareekaaksha Raksha Maam saranagatam //Aakaasaat patitam toyam yatha gacchati saagaram// Sarvadeva namaskarah kesavam prati gachchati // Sreekesavam prati gacchatyon nama iti
// abhivaadaye ... Asmi Bhoh //
Kaayena Vaacha Manasendriyairvaa Budhyaatmana Vaa Prakriteh Swabhaavaat // Karomi Yadyat Sakalam Parasmai Naraayanaayeti samarpayaami //.
Kaayena -By the body.
Vaachaa -By speech.
Manasaa -By the mind.
Indriyairvaa -or by the senses
Budhyaatmana Vaa -or by the intellect
Gayatri mantra is meant for realization of God and is regarded as representing the Supreme Lord. It is meant for spiritually advanced people. Success in chanting it enables one to enter the transcendental position of the Lord. But, in order to chant the Gayatri mantra, it is necessary for one to first acquire the qualities of the perfectly balanced person in terms of the qualities of goodness according to the laws of material nature. The Gayatri mantra is considered to be the sonic incarnation of Brahman and is regarded as very important in Vedic civilization. In Bhagavadgita (Ch. 10. 35), Lord Krishna states:Brihat saama latha saamnaam
Gayatri chandasaam aham
Maasaanam maarga sirshoham
Among the hymns, I am the Brihat saama sung to Lord Indra, Of the poetry, I am the Gayatri verse sung daily by the initiated, Of all the nuwsas (months), I am the margasira (November- December) Among all the ritus (seasons), I am the flower bearing - spring.
Gayatri, the five-faced Goddess, is said to have domain over the five senses or pranas, and protects these five life-forces of those who chant the Gayatri Mantra. In her role as the protector, Gayatri is referred to as Savitri.
Word for Word Meaning of the Gayatri Mantra
Aum = Brahma ;
bhoor = embodiment of vital spiritual energy(pran) ;
bhuwah = destroyer of sufferings ;
swaha = embodiment of happiness ;
tat = that ;
savitur = bright like sun ;
varenyam = best choicest ;
bhargo = destroyer of sins ;
devasya = divine ;
these first nine words describe the glory of God
dheemahi = may imbibe ; pertains to meditation
dhiyo = intellect ;
yo = who ;
naha = our ;
prachodayat = may inspire!
"dhiyo yo na prachodayat" is a prayer to God
Hence the Gayatri is unique in that it embodies the three concepts of stotra (singing the praise and glory of God), dhyaana (meditation) and praarthana (prayer).
Chandogya Upanisad 3.12.1,2,5 (Qualities of Gayatri)
1. This entire creation is Gayatri. And the Gayatri is speech - for speech sings (gayati) and protects (trayati) this entire creation. Gayatri indeed is all this, whatever being exists. Speech indeed is Gayatri; for speech indeed sings and removes fear of all this that exists.
2. That which is this Gayatri, even that is this earth; for on this earth are all the beings established and they do not transcend it.
5. This well-known Gayatri is four-footed and sixfold.
Chandogya Upanisad 4.17.1-6 (Origin of Bhur Bhuvah Svah)
1. Prajapati (the progenitor of the worlds) brooded on the three worlds. From them he extracted their essences; fire from the earth, air from the sky and the sun from heaven.
2. He further brooded on these three deities. From them he extracted their essences: the Riks (Rg-veda) from fire, the Yajus-mantras (Yajur-veda) from air, and the Saman (Sama-veda) from the sun.
3. He brooded on the three Vedas. From them he extracted their existences; Bhuh from the Riks, Bhuvah from the Yajus-mantras and Svah from the Samans.
4-6. Therefore if the sacrifice is rendered defective on account of the Riks (or Yajus or Samans), then with the Mantra 'Bhuh Svaha' (or 'Bhuvah Svaha' or 'Svah Svaha'), the Brahman priest should offer an oblation in the fire. Thus verily, through the essence of the Riks (or Yajus or Samans), through the virility of the Riks (or Yajus or Samans), he makes good the injury of the sacrifice in respect of the Riks (or Yajus or Samans).
Brahadaranyaka Upanisad 5.14.4 (Gayatri as the Protector)
The Gayatri Mantra is based on truth. For truth is based on strength. Strength is breath, and is based on breath. So, Gayatri protects (tra) the wealth (gaya) (the breath!) of those who speak it with earnestness and devotion. When one recites Gayatri on behalf of someone, it protects that person's breath too!
Brahadaranyaka Upanisad 5.14.5 (Four 'foots' of the Gayatri)
This verse talks about the unbounded wealth contained within the four 'foots' of the Gayatri Mantra.
The first foot (aum bhur bhuvah svaha) is said to be equivalent to the wealth contained in the three worlds put together.
The second foot (tat savitur varenyam) is said to be equivalent to the wealth contained in the three main vedas.
If one were to receive a gift extending as far as there are living beings, that would equal the third foot (bhargo devasaya dheemahi).
The fourth foot (dheeyo yo nah prachodyaat) is based on the glory of the sun, whose power and wealth remains unequaled and unrivaled. Hence, there is no amount of wealth that can equal the fourth foot of the Gayatri!
Gayatri Mantra and Views of Rishis
Several concepts are prevalent in the Hindu religion and there are controversies and conflicting opinions also in respect of some of them. But all the sects, saints and rishis have accepted the pre-eminence of Gayatri Mantra with one voice.
Atharva Ved incorporates a prayer (19-1-71) in praise of Gayatri stating that it grants longevity, energy, power, fame, wealth and divine brilliance (Brahma-tej).
According to Maharshi Vishwamitra, there is no other mantra like Gayatri mantra in all the four Vedas. All the Vedas, Yagya, Charity, Tap (devout austerity) are not equivalent even to a small portion of potency of Gayatri Mantra.
According to Parashar Rishi, "of all suktas and Ved Mantras, Gayatri Mantra is the superiormost. Between the Vedas and Gayatri, the latter has an upper hand. One who performs Gayatri jap with devotion becomes pure and gets liberated. A person without Gayatri worship cannot be considered a Brahman, although, he might have read Vedas, Shastras, Purans and history".
Shankha Rishi is of the view that "Gayatri alone extends a helping hand and saves a person from falling in the ocean of hell. There is nothing superior to it on this earth as well as in the heavens. Undoubtedly, a person who masters Gayatri attains heaven (swarga)''.
According to Shounak Rishi " a dwij may or may not do other worships. He gets liberated by doing Gayatri jap alone and attains all material and spiritual boons. Performance of ten thousand japs averts calamity in the hour of crisis."
Attri Muni says "Gayatri completely purifies the soul. By the glorious power of Gayatri deep-rooted defects and vices are cleansed out. Nothing else remains to be attained in this world by one who fully understands the substance of Gayatri."
Bhardwaj Rishi says that "even God like Brahma performs Gayatri jap. It leads to God realisation. A vicious man gets rid of his vices by performing Gayatri jap. A person devoid of Gayatri Sadhana is worse than a shudra."
A person who worships Gayatri, observes Brahmacharya and consumes fresh fruits of Anwala tree (emblic myrobalan ) attains longevity according to Charak Rishi.
According to Narad Rishi "Gayatri is devotion (bhakti ) personified. Wherever there is Gayatri in the form of devotion, God-Narayan, undoubtedly resides there."
Vashishtha says " persons who are dull, way-ward and fickle-minded become highly intelligent and steadfast and rise to great heights in worldly and spiritual pursuits by Gayatri Sadhana. Those who worship Gayatri steadfastly and piously attain self-realisation''.
Dr.Howard Steingeril, an American scientist, collected Mantras, Hymns and invocations from all over the world and from all religions, tested their strength in his Physiology Laboratory.
He concluded that the Hindus Vedic Gayatri Mantra is the most rewarding scientifically. because
The Gayathri Mantra produced 110,000 sound waves per second.
This was the highest and found it to be the most powerful prayer hymn in the world.
That the combination of sound and variation in the sound waves and its particular frequency is capable of developing specific spiritual potentialities.
The Hamburg university initiated this research into the efficacy of the Gayathri Mantra both on the mental and physical plane of CREATION...
The GAYATHRI MANTRA is now being broadcast daily for 15 minutes from 7 P.M. onwards over Radio Paramaribo, Surinam, South America for the past two years, and also in Amsterdam, Holland for the last six months
Material and Physical benefits
Bestows attractive personality
Develops the power of speech
Wards off poverty and insufficiency
Forms a protective halo around the person
Brilliance in the eyes is noticed
Wards off dire influences, unfavourable circumstances and dangerous situations
Activates internal centers in the body
The beeja mantras in the mantra activates nerve fibres and glands
The vibrations when chanting spread in the environment, attract similar positive atoms and return to its origin (the person who is chanting) filling him with this gathered positive energy
Regular chanting keeps the person and his family always in prosperity and plenty
The following traits develop: bravery, wellbeing, love, wealth, brilliance, stronger immunity, sharp intellect, perfect control over senses, devotion, retention, attracts life force, increases penance, farsightedness, awakening, improves productivity, makes one cheerful, idealistic, courageous, full of wisdom and removes selfishness and promotes service mindedness
The atmosphere around that person is calm
A person chanting Gayatri can never have a demeaned life. It is always a blissful life Subtle and spiritual benefits
Develops a sacred and focussed psyche
Grants 8 forms of siddhis (powers) and 9 forms nidhis (attributes) and several subsets of these called riddhis
Allows one to positively influence the environment and to use divine energy for welfare of the world
Person develops Divine magnetism
Igonrance, infirmity and inadequacy are removed
Makes one a magnetic personality
Develops a feeling of peace, makes one aware of a new power that is working within them
Makes a person take interest in noble deeds
When a mistake is committed, makes one immediately recognize it, feels sorry for it & takes corrective action not to repeat it
Develops intuition and gets an inkling of future events before they happen
Develops ability to read minds
Ability to influence people and plant good thoughts in them
Regular practice makes anything uttered by that person comes true and materializes itself
Sees Divine light in everything around
A person can transfer a part of their spiritual energy to others
"Gayatri Mantra is the best divine prayer hymn in the world
SAID AMERICAN SCIENTIST Dr.HOWARD STEINGERIL
Thursday, July 26, 2012
The moment this wonderful annual function Avani Avittam comes to our mind, some of us may think that this occasion is just for change of poonal.
Is it so? While it is true to some extent, it doesn't end up there.
This beautiful occasion has several rites.
A particular one has powerful mantras for shedding of all sins and making a new beginning.
It also involves the renewal of our pledges to keep our Vedic duties, in addition to one's individual
Veda Adhyayana, towards society and humanity at large.
Perhaps that could be one of the reasons for celebrating it together, Samashti, at a common place like river bed, community hall, temple premises etc.
Rites involved in the Upakarma:1. Kamokarsheet Japam:
2. Brahma Yagnam
3. Maha Sankalpam
4. Yajnopaveeta dharanam
5. Khandarishi tharpanam
6. Khandarishi Homam (includes Veda reciting)
7. Acharya Sambhavana
Kamokarsheet Japam:It is a wonderful prayer cum japam. The repetition of this mantra, at least 108 times, with related Sankalpa is to remind oneself that it is lust & anger that are the root cause of all sins. One should always be careful and vigilant.
Khandarishi tharpanam:Here we offer tharpanam to seek the blessings of Maharishis who are the sources for various Khandas of Vedas. Ancestors also are invoked here to seek their blessings.
For Kaamokarsheeth Japam:
Ganapati Dyanam :
Om Shuklambaradharam Vishnum Shashi varnam chaturbhujam Prasannavadanam dyayetha, sarva vignobha upashanthaye -
Om boohu, Om bhuvaha,Om bhuvasuvah, Om mahahah, Om janaha Om tapaha, Oghum satyam, Om tatsa vithurvarenyam, Bhargo devasya dhimahih, dheeyo yonah prachodayathu, Om apaha, jyothi rasa, amrutam brahma, bhurbhuva suvarom
"Mamopatha Samastha, duritha kshaya dwara, Shri Parameswara preethyartham shubhey shobhaney muhurthey, adhya brahmana dvithiya pararthey shwetha varaha kalpey, vaivaswatha manvantharey, ashtavighum shathi thamey, kaliyugey, prathamey padhey, jambu dwipey, bhaaratha varshey, bharata khandey, meroho dakshiney parshvey shakapthey, asmin, varthamaney, vyavaharikey, prabhava dhinanam, shashtyaha, samvatsaranam madhyey Nandana naama samvatsarey, Dakshinayaney, Greeshma rithou, Kataka maasey, shukla pakshey, Chaturdashyam (upto 11.00 a.m.) OR/ Pournamaasyaam Shubha thithou, Saumya vaasara yukthaayaam, Uttarashadhaa nakshatra yukthayaam, Preethi nama yoga, Vanijai karana yuktayaam, yevanguna, viseshana vishistayam, asyam vartamanayam, Chaturdashyam (OR)/Pournamaasyaam shuba thithau.
Mamo patha samastha, duridha kshaya dvara, sri parameswara prithyartham, thaishyam paurna maasyam, adhyayot sarjana akarana, prayaschitartham, samvatsara prayaschitartham, ashtothara sahasra sankhyaya (1008 times ) or ashtothara shatha sankya (108 times) " Kamokaarishitha manyura karishitha namo namaha" ithi maha mantra japam karishyey."
Now say 1008 times - " Kamokarishitha manyura karishitha namo namaha."
Take out the darbhai from the fingers and throw it in the northern direction after reciting kamokarishi mantra 1008 times. Then remove the pavitram, untie it and place it also in the northern direction. Then do the Achamaniyam say " Sarvam brahmarpanam asthu" and pour little water in front of you.
This sankalpam should be followed by Maadyanikam and Brahma Yagnam.
Gayatri Japa Sankalpam
Keshava, Narayana,Madhava, Govinda, Vishno, Madhusudhana, Trivikrama, Vamana, Sridhara, Rishikesha, Padmanabha,Damodara
Wear the grass Pavitram on the right hand ring finger, place 4 darbhais under folded feet as asanam, 4 darbhais to be folded around the ring finger. Then start :
Om Shuklambharadharam Vishnum Shashi varnam chaturbhujam, Prasanavadanam dhyayetha, sarva vignobha upashanthaye.
Om boohu, Om bhuvaha, Om bhuvasuvah, Om mahahah, Om janaha, Om tapaha, Oghum satyam, Om tatsa Vithurvarenyam, bhargho devasya dhimahih, dheeyo yonah prachodayathu. Om apaha, jyothi rasaha, amrutham brahma, bhur bhuva suvarom…om
Mamopata samastha duritha kshaya dwara, Sri Parameswara preethyartham shubey, shobhaney muhurthey, adhya brahmana, dwithiya pararthey, shwetha varaha kalpey, vaivaswatha manvanhtarey, ashtavighum shathi tamey, kaliyugey, prathamey paadhey, jambu dwipey, bhaaratha varshey, bharatha khandey, meroho, dakshiney paarshvey, shakaapthey, asmin varthamaney, Vyavaharikey, prabhavadhinam, shashtyaha, samvatsaraanam madhyey, -------------- Naama Samvatsarey, Dakshinaayaney, Greeshma rithou, Kataka maasey, Krishnapakshey, Pournamaasyaam, Shubha thithou, -------- vaasara yukthayaam, -------------- nakshatra yukthaayaam*, --------- nama yoga, -----------karana yuktayaam, Evam guna visheshana vishishtayaam, asyaam Pournamaasyaam shubha thithou. Mamopata samastha duritha kshaya dwara, Sri Parameswara preethyartham midhyaditha prayaschithartham, dosha vatsu, apathaniya prayaschithartham, samvatsara prayaschithartham, ashtothara sahasra sankhyaya (1008 times) or ashtothara shata (108)sankhyaya gayatri mahamantra japam karishyey.
Now follow steps of Sandhya Vandanam starting from:
"Pranavasya rishi brahma,
devi-gayatri chandaha …Paramatma devatah."
Pranayamam 10 times…
.' Om boohoo, Om bhuvaha….. amrutham brahma, bhur bhuva suvarom…om
Then Gayatri Aavahana...
"Aayaditya anuvaagasya, vama deva rishi…………nichrut gayatri chandaha, savita devata"
Say Gayatri Mantra 1008 times:
"Om Bhurbhuvasuvah, tatsa vithur varenyam, bhargo devasya dheemahi, dheeyo yo nah prachodayat"..
After Gayatri mantram, once again Pranayamam:
"Om bhoohu………. amrutham brahma, bhur bhuva suvarom…om"
Then do Gayatri Upasthanam...
"Uttamey Shikarey devi, bhumyam parvata moordhini. Braahmaney bhyo anugnyanam gacha devi yetha sukham".
Untie Pavitram, put it on the right side. Do Aachamaniyam and then pour water in front of you saying :
"Om tat sat brahmarpanam asthu"
Say your Abhvadaye...
Prostrate and exit.
Yagnopavitha Dharana Mantram
Ganapati Dhyanam ……..
"Om boohu…………bhur bhuvah suvarom."
Mamopata Samastha duritha Kshaya dwara, Sri Parameshwar preethyartham, Shaudha smarta vihita, sadachara nityakarma anushtana, yogyatha sidhyartham, brahma tejo abhivridyartham. Yagnopavitha dharanam karishyey. Yagnopavitha dharana mahamantrasya ( touch forehead) para brahma rishi, (touch nose) Tristup chandaha (touch chest) paramatma devata. (Namaste) Yagnopavitha dharaney viniyogaha
Take the poonal in your hands. Knot on top of right hand, left hand holding other end of poonal with fingers touching the panja patram. Then say…..
Yagnopavitham paramam pavithram, prajapathey, yat sahajam purastat. 'Aayushyam agriyam, prathimunja shubram yagnopavitham balam asthu tejaha…Om.
Now wear the New Poonal. Repeat this mantra in case of Grihasthan wearing triple or double poonals.
Then do achamaniyam. Then say….
"Upavitham bhinatanthum, jeernam kashmala dooshitham. Visrujami, na hi brahma varcho dirghayurastu mey."
Now take out your old poonal and throw it in Northern direction. Then do achamaniyam and exit.
Gayathri means "A mantra that protects those who recite it ".
'Tatsaviturvarenyam - Bhargo Devasya Dhimahi- Dhiyo Yo Naha Prachodayat' is the gayathri mantra .
While chanting , it is prefixed by 'om' ( pranava ) and 'bhur bhuvaswah' ( vyahriti )
The meaning of the mantra is ' I meditate on sun with tejas or divine strength of the lord who activates our intellect '. This means ' I meditate on the Supreme lord in the orbit of the sun who activates our intellect.'
Gayathri mantra consists of five sections as under Gayatri Mantra chanting
Bhur Bhuva Suvah
Bhargo Devasya Dhimahi
Dhiyo Yo Naha Prachodayat
Each section should be uttered in one breath. There must be gap between sections.
Gayathri is considered to be mother of all mantras and is said to be equivalent to vedas . It is addressed to " para brahman " residing in the sun. In other words we meditate on para brahman residing in sun through Gayatri . God ( Para Brahman ) is both male and female . The soft and kind qualities are praised as female .Through Gayatri , we invoke soft and kind qualities of Para Brahman . Gayatri mantra is universal . In other words it is chanted not only by humans but also by Devas.
According to Chandayoga Upanishad , meditation through Gayatri at sunrise and sunset helps one to acquire benefits from "Aditya " - namely
lustrous and health preserving of the body and mind ,
light body ,
high intellect with grasping power ,
high intuition ,
improved blood circulation and many other qualities .
Studies by the Sabha also point to the above .During chanting , blood pressure comes down .ECG studies indicate improved absorption of cosmic or pranic energy .In the language of pranic or Reiki healers , this means better resistance against ailments .This aspect has been discussed in the book " Sandhyavandanam " , published in 1995 by the sabha. The essential feature of Sandhyavandanam is meditation through Gayatri Mantra.
Gayatri Japam or meditation through Gayatri Mantra has a unique place in vedic tradition.The benefits are immense .It helps one to acquire high personality , high mental quality , etc .The following episode may be of interest ;
Akbar was ruling India . Birbal was his minister .Akbar and Birbal would often travel incognito to collect first hand information about the various happenings within the country.On one occasion , they noticed a brahmin going begging from house to house .Akbar pointed this out to Birbal .Birbal noticed the beggar and kept quiet. after reaching home he sent word for the brahmin to meet him.
When the brahmin called on Birbal , Birbal said , " Oh ! Brahmin - You collect your daily earnings through begging from me every day . In lieu of begging please chant Gayatri Japam during the three sandhya periods 108 times everyday." The brahmin agreed and after collecting the money from Birbal , started chanting Gayatri Mantra. after a few days , he thought , why not increase the chanting to 1008 times , since he had a lot of time. Very soon , people started giving him charity in the form of food and cash . In this way the brahmin stopped going to Birbal's house for begging . His daily meditation earnt him the power to acquire knowledge , acquire an attractive personality and soon he transformed into a good expounder of knowledge. More and more people started coming to him and he became a well known personality . Birbal also heard about him . One day Birbal visited the brahmin and asked him as to why he had stopped coming to his house . The brahmin profusely thanked Birbal for for putting him on the right path by guiding him at the right time.One day Birbal mentioned to Akbar that a saintly person had come to town and Akbar promptly invited the person and honoured him.Birbal then asked Akbar whether he remembered this saintly person but akbar could not recollect. Birbal then reminded Akbar about the brahmin beggar episode . Akbar after hearing this exclaimed " Oh ! what a change " . This episode appears in the Akbar Nama and brings out the virtue and greatness of the Gayatri Mantra.
Meaning of "Brahmin"
The word Brahmana (hereinafter "Brahmin") means the God, one who knows God, one who has the knowledge of God, one who has the knowledge of Vedas, an intellectual, a priest, a teacher, a professor, a person belonging to Brahmin caste, a superior person, a text related to Vedas, and so on.
Most of the practicing Brahmins adhere to the principles such as acceptance of the Vedas with reverence; recognition of the fact that the means or ways to salvation and realization of the truth are diverse; God is one, but has innumerable names and forms to chant and worship due to our varied perceptions, cultures and languages; that a Brahmin works for the welfare of the entire society and so on. Daily practices of Brahmins include sandhyavandana (prayers to Gayatri and Sun God), prayer to ishtadaiva or ilavelpu (personal God), yoga, non-violence, vegetarianism etc. Everything in the daily life of a Brahmin is a ritual.
Traditional Brahmin accepts Vedas as apaurusheyam (not man-made), but revealed truths and of eternal validity or relevance and hence the Vedas are considered Srutis that which have been heard and are the paramount source of Brahmin traditions and is believed to be divine. These Srutis include not only the four Vedas (the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda), but also their respective Brahmanas. Brahmins also give tremendous importance to purity of body and mind and hence attach importance to ritual baths and cleanliness.
Major Brahmin Castes: Major Brahmin castes in the Indian Continent include Chitpavana Brahmins, Daivajna Brahmins, Deshastha Brahmins, Dhima Brahmins, Gouda Saraswat Brahmins, Havyaka Brahmins, Hoysala Karnataka Brahmins, Iyers, Kandavara Brahmins, Karade Brahmins, Karhada Brahmins, Kayastha Brahmins, Khandelwal Brahmins, Kota Brahmins, Konkanastha Brahmins, Koteshwara Brahmins, Nagar Brahmins, Namboothiri Brahmins, Niyogi Brahmins, Padia Brahmins, Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins, Saklapuri Brahmins, Sanketi Brahmins, Saraswat Brahmins, Shivalli Brahmins, Smarta Brahmins, Sthanika Brahmins, Thenkalai Iyengars, Tuluva Brahmins, Vadagalai Iyengars, Vaidiki Brahmins and Vaishnava Brahmins.
Brahmins in the Indian Continent are divided into two major groups: Panch Gaur and Panch Dravida. Panch Gaur (the five classes of Northern India) group constitutes: 1) Saraswata, 2) Kanyakubja, 3) Gaudra, 4) Utkala, and 5) Maithila. In addition, for the purpose of giving an account of Northern Brahmins each of the provinces must be considered separately, such as, North Western Provinces, Gandhar, Punjab, Kashmir, Sindh, Rajputana, Kurukshetra, Oudh, Cetral India, Trihoot, South Bihar, Orissa, Bengal, Assam etc. Panch Dravida (the five classes of Southern India) group constitutes: 1) Andhra, 2) Dravida (Tamil and Kerala), 3) Karnataka, 4) Maharashtra, 5) Gujarat.
Various Brahmin Communities15 (Note: The following list does not represent all the Brahmin castes of the Indian Continent)
1) Andhra Brahmins
i) Niyogi Brahmins
ii) Vaidiki Brahmins
2) Chitpavana Brahmins
3) Daivajna Brahmins
4) Deshastha Brahmins
5) Dhima Brahmins
6) Gaur Brahmins
7) Gouda SaraswatBrahmins
8) Havyaka Brahmins
9) Hoysala Karnataka Brahmins: The Hoysala Karnatakas are Smarta Brahmins living in the State of Karnataka in the Indian Union. Many eminent scholars, musicians, philosophers, generals and religious pontiffs belong to this community. (Read more here)
11) Kandavara Brahmins
12) Karade Brahmins
13) Karhada Brahmins
14) Kashmiri Saraswat Brahmins
15) Kayastha Brahmins
16) Khandelwal Brahmins
17) Konkanastha Brahmins
18) Kota Brahmins
19) Koteshwara Brahmins
20) Nagar Brahmins
21) Namboothiri Brahmins
22) Padia Brahmins
23) Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins
24) Saklapuri Brahmins
25) Sanketi Brahmins
26) Saraswat Brahmins
a) The Chitrapur Saraswat Brahmins
b) Kashmiri Saraswat Brahmins or Kashmiri Pandits
c) Rajapur/Balawalikar Saraswat Brahmins
d) Haryana Saraswat Brahmins
27) Shivalli Brahmins
28) Smarta Brahmins
29) Sthanika Brahmins
30) Tuluva Brahmins
Gothras and Pravaras
'The word gotra denotes the progeny (of a sage) beginning with the son's son. When a person says ' I am Kashypasa-gotra' he means that he traces his descent from the ancient sage Kashyapa by unbroken male descent.
According to the Baudhâyanas'rauta-sûtra Vishvâmitra, Jamadagni, Bharadvâja, Gautama, Atri, Vasishtha, Kashyapa and Agastya are 8 sages; the progeny of these eight sages is declared to be gotras.
There are two kinds of pravaras,
1) sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara, and
Gotrapravaras can be ekarsheya, dwarsheya, triarsheya, pancharsheya, saptarsheya, and up to 19 rishis.
List of Brahmin Gotras
The following is a partial list of gotras found in the Brahmin community of Hindus:
Maudgalya (Moudgil, Mudgal)
Suryadhwaja: Lakhi (Mehrishi), Soral, Binju
Angirasa, Gairola (i.e. Sarola brahmin) Bruhaspatya (i.e. bruhaspati), Bharadwaja, Upreti
Rathitara: Baaryhaspatya, Angirasa, Rathitara
Vadula: Bhargava, Vaitahavya, Saavedasa
Srivatsa: Bhargava, Chyavana, Aapnavaana, Aurva, Jaamadagni
Salankayana: Viswaamitra, Aghamarshana, Devarata
Shatamarshana: Angirasa, Powrukutsa,Traasatasya
Atreyasa: Atreyasa, Aarchanaasa, Syaavatsyasa
Kalabodhana: Viswaamitra, Agamarshana, Kalabodhana
Kalaboudha: Viswaamitra, Agamarshana, Kalaboudha
Kalabhavasa: Viswaamitra, AAgamarshana, Kalabhavasa
Viswamitra: Viswamitra, Devarata, Owtala
Kaama kaayana Viswaamitra: one who has conquered lust: Vaishwaamitra, Devasravasa, Daivatharasa
Kaundinyasa (Kaundinya): Vashista, Maitraavaruna, Kaundinya
Haritasa/Harita/Haritsa: Angirasa, Ambarisha, Yuvanasva
Gautamasa: Angirasa, Aayasyasa, Gautama
gautamasa 7 sages; gautama, ayasya, ousishya, oushaja, kankshvadana, bhriguridhdha, vaamadava:krishna yajurveda tiettereeya saakha
Angirasa, Bharmyasva, Mowdgalya
Tarkshya, Bharmyasva, Mowdgalya
Angirasa, Dhavya, Mowdgalya
Sandilya (4 Variations)
Brahma, Daksha_Kaamadhenu, Bhrigu_Srivatsa_Khyati, Bhargav_Nandini, Kashyap_Diti_Bali, Kashyap_Aditi_Surya_Bhishma, Naidhruva, Asitha_Videhi, Sandeya/Sanatana/Sanandana/Sanaka/Sanasujata, Bharadvaj, Yamdagni
Kasyapasa, Aavatsaara, Daivala
Kasyapasa, Aavatsaara, Sandilya
Kasyapasa, Daivala, Asitha
Kasyapa, Aavatsaara, Dev, Naidruva(Naitruva), Marichi, Rebha, Raibha, Shandila, Shaandilya
Kanva (2 Variations)
Parashara: Vashista, Saaktya, Parashara
Gargya/Garga (2 Variations)
Angirasa, Sainya, Gaargya
Bhadarayana: Angirasa,Paarshadaswa, Raatitara
Kasyapa (3 Variations)
Kasyapa, Aavatsaara, Dev, Marichi, Daivala,
Kasyapa, Aavatsaara, Dev, Marichi, Naidruva(Naitruva),
Kasyapa, Aavatsaara, Dev, Naidruva(Naitruva), Marichi, Rebha, Raibha, Sandila, Saandilya
Sankriti (2 Variations)
Angirasa, Pouru, kutsya
Gautamasa: Aangeerasa, ayasya, gowtama
AgniVaiwaswatha: Angirasa, Brahaspthayasa, Bharadwaja, Srukva, Agnivaiwaswathasa
Vishwamitra, Shraumita, Kaamakayana, Devatarasa, Devaraata, Panchashraya
Kapisa: Angirasa,Baruhaspataya,bharadwagasa,Vandana,Matavachasa, Ethi Pancha rushi.
Kutchasa: Harita, Ambarisha, Yuvanaswa, Mahandatha, Dharba, Pingala
Rauksaayana:Angiras, Mandhana, Madhuvachasa
Jamadagni: Bhargava, Chyavana, Aapnavaana, Aurava, Jaamadagneya
Bhargava: (2 variations)
Bhargava: Bhargava, Tvashta,Vishvarupa
Bhargava: Bhargava, Chyavana, Aapnavaana, Aurva, Jaamadagni
Vatsa: Orva,Bhardwaj,Bhargava, Chyavana, Aapnavan, Devgan ,Gori
Mohiyals : Munjhals,Dutt,Bali, Bakshi, Punj, Chibber,Lau,Mehta,Mohan
Jaabaali : Bhargava, Vaithahavya, Raivasa - Thrayarisheya, pravaranvitha
parthivasa : Bhargava, vynavya, parthivedi