Saturday, October 30, 2010

Sankalpa mantra

Courtesy: Sri. Pallasena Radhakrishnan
=========================
     SANKALPAM
 Friends,
 
Without knowing the meaning of what we chant most of us chant MANTHRAS.  Of
course there are many among us who know the meaning of the MANTHRAS which we
chant  .  This article is not meant for such knowledgeable people among us. 
During Sankalpa  we say " SHUBHE SHOBHANE MUHURTHE ADHYA BRAHMANA DWITEEYA
PARAAEDHE SWETHA VARAAHA KALPE VYVASWATHA MANWANTHARE ASHTAAVIMSHATHITHAM
E KALI
YGE PRATHAME PADE…….etc.

Let us try to find out the meaning of what we say while chanting Manthras.  I
had already written about MERU PARVATHA. 

 
While I do not like to deal with time cycles which starts from TRUTHI or in
English ATOM which is explained in SOORYA SIDDANTHA (Slokas 11 to 23 of Chapter
ONE) and required more to know by ASTROLOGERS and STUDENTS OF ASTRONOMY more
than us, I shall try to explain to the best of my knowledge about the MANTHRAS
we chant.

 
How ever certain information which is general has been given below:-
 
Leaving the preliminaries I start with MUHURTHA.  Enough to know that one
MUHURTHA is 2 DANDAS or NADIKAS.
 
6 or some times 7 Muhurthas make one YAAMAH i.e. equal to 0.25 of a day or
night. In other words there are 4 yaamas in a DAY OR NIGHT.

 
I have already discussed What is MUHURTHA ,  Now let us try to understand  what
is "adyabrahmana" .  It means beginning from Brahma's life.

Time in relation with BRAHM's life is :-
 
(i)                 KRUTHA YUGA Or SATHYA YUGA = 1728,000 Years
(ii)               THRETHA YUGA                                   = 1296,000 
Years
(iii)             DWAPARA YUGA                                  =   864,000
Years

(iv)             KALI YUGA                                             =  
432,000 Years
TOTAL NO, OF BRAHMA'S LIFE PERIOD  = 4320,000 YEARS
 
The meaning of ADYA BRAHMANA is the person performing Sankalpa, begins  from
Brahma's Life.  ONE PARARDHA is 50 , BRAHMAN'S YEARS, He has completed one
Parardha and now it is DWITHEEYA PARARDHA.  Brahma's life span is 2 Parardhas in
full i.e. 100 years and when he completes 100 years He will die. In other words
Brahma is considered as MORTAL AND HENCE  I FEEL HE HAS NO TEMPLE. What ever it
may be , we believe that BRAHMA lives through one MAHA KALPA which is equal to
311.04
Million Human years.
 
 
We also say SWETHA VARAHA KALPA. . Let us first know what is KALPA.  A kalpa is
12 hours of Brahma .  In other words Brahma's 24 hours or Day and Night contain
2 Kalpas.

Friends, while MATSYA PURANA says 30 Kalpas for Brahma , VAyu Purana  says 34
Kalpas .  I,  like to state that a KALPA is the simple multiple of 864, 000
seconds of our day.

 
Since  Matsya Purana, appears to be more authentic,  I give below the names
found in it :- 

 
(1)  .  Swetha  (2)  .  Neelalohitha   (3)    Vaamadeva   (4)  Rathanthara  (5) 
.  Raurava (6)  Deva (7)  Viraat  (8).  Kandarpa  ( 9.)   Sadya  (10)  Eeshaana 
(11)  Thamah ( 12)  Saaraswatha (13)  Udaana  (14)  Gaaruda  (15)  Kaurma 
(16)   Naarasimha  (17)  Samaana
(18)  Aagneya  (19)  Soma  (20)  Maanava  (21) Thathpumaan   (22)  Vaikuntah 
(23)  Lakshmi  (24)  Saavithri  (25)  Aghora  (26)  Varaaha  (27)  Vairaja 
(28)  Gauri
(29)  MahEshwara and (30) Pithir.            
 
It is pertinent  to say here how HINDUS recon time among the ancestors who are
dead, Devas and Brahma :

 
MAWANTHARAS : In one KALPA there are FOURTEEN MANWANTHARAS.  ONE MANWANDRA is
100 YEARS OF INDRA. In other words 72 Chathur Yugas make one MANWANTARA.  The
Chathur Yugas are KRUTHA or SATHYA YUGA 4 CHARANAS in total 1,728, 000 Solar
Years.; THRETHA YUGA 3 CHARANAS in total 1,296,000 Solar years; DWAPARA YUGA
with 2 charanas In total  864,000 , and KALI YUGAhaving only
One charan in total 432,000 tropical years.
 
The Manus as per VAYU PURANA are (1) SWAYAMBHUVA who created MANU SAMHITHA (2)
SWAROCHISHTA (3) UTHAMA (4) THAMASA (5) RAIVATHA
(6) CHAIKSHUSHU (7) VAIVASWATHA (8) ARKA SAVARNIKA (9) DAKSHA SAVARNIKA (10 )
BRAHMA SAVARNIKA (11) DHARMA SAVARNIKA (12) RUDRA SAVARNIKA ( 13) DEVA SAWARNIKA
and (14) INDRA SAVARNIKA 

 
FOR OUR DEAD ANCESTORS (PITHRUS)
 
ONE DAY OF PRUTHURS ( DEAD ANCESTORS }  = ONE HUMAN MONTH
30 DAYS OF PITHRUS make ONE MONTH FOR THEM
12 MONTHS OF PITHRUS MAKE ONE YEAR FOR THEM 
.
The Shukla Paksha is the DAY TIME and KrishnaPaksha is the Night Time for them.
This is taken as per Vishnu Purana
 
FOR DEVAS
 
One day  for Devas is equal to ONE YEAR for HUMAN BEINGS comprising two half
years..
Brighter half of the day is UTHTHARAYANA and Darker half is called DAKSHINAYANA
 
 
 
 
 
SHAKA KARTHAS
 
As per our legends , in KALI YUGA six kings will create new era (SHAKA) which
will be named after them.  They are 1.  YUDHISHTIRA SHAKA (2) VIKRAMA SHAKA, (3)
SHALIVAHANA SHAKA (which is running now) ; (4)VIJAYABHINANDANA SHAKA

(4) VIJAYABHINANDANA SAKHA (5) NAGARJUNA SHAKA and (6) KALKI SHAKA.
 
ASHTA VIMSHATHI THAME means 18000 KALPAS completed.
 
A THITHI as we call in English LUNAR DAY.  I do not like to confuse my dear
friends by defining the Thithi., except saying that THITHIS start at varying
times and vary in its duration from 19 to 26 hours approximately.

 
A PAKSHA has 15 Thithis.  There are 2 Pakshas in a Lunar month which is roughly
29.5 Days.  In these two Pakshas one is called SHUKLA PAKSHA which starts after
NEW MOON DAY or AMAAVAASYA.  This called in ENGLISH  as WAXING.
The other one is called KRISHNAPAKSHA which starts after full moon day and ends
with NEW MOON or as we say AMAAVAASYA.

 
A RITHU ( SEASON ) consists of 2 months. As per HINDU PHYLOSOPHY. There are 6
RITHUS in a year.
They are (i) VASANTHA, (ii) GREESHMA  (iii) VARSHA (iv) SHARATH
(v) HEMANTHA (vi) SHISHIRA.
 
Note :- WESTERNERS HAVE ONLY 4 SEASONS VIZ :- SPRING, SUMMER ,  AUTUMN, WINTER.
 
The first 3 RITHUS make one AYANAM and next 3 RITHUS make another AYANAM . 
AYANA which starts from the month of ASHAADA (KARKITAKA)  to MRUGASHIRSHA (
DHANUS) is called as DAKSINAYANAM and from PUSHYA ( MAKARA) to JYESHTA (MITHUNA)
is called as UTHTHARAAYANA. .
 
SANKALPA MONTHS ARE 12 IN NUMBER.  I shall give this in both TAMIL and
Sanskrit  சித்திரை/MESHAM , வைகாசி/VRUSHABHAM, ஆனி/MITHUNAM,
ஆடி/KATAKAM, ஆவணி/SIMHAM, புரட்டாசி/KANYA, ஐப்பசி/THULA,
கார்த்திகை/VRISCHIKA, மார்கழி /DHANUS, தை/MAKARA, மாசி/KUMBHA
பங்குனி/MEENA,
 
SANKALPA WEEKS: Sunday (Bhaanu Vaasara)  ,  Monday (Indu or sOma vAsara),
Tuesday ( Bhowma vAsara) , Wednes Day ( Soumya vAsara ) , Thursday ( Guru VAsara
),
Friday (Bgrgu vAsara) , Saturday (Sthira vAsara )
Note : In Sanskrit there are many names for each day.
 
 
 
SANKALPA NAKSHATRA  : From the 27 Nakshathras which ever Nakshathra comes on the
particular day and time.

Note : There is one intercalary NAKSHATHRA called ABHIJITH  ( Which is known as
Alpha, epsilon ) between

Utharaashaada 3rd and 4th paadas and first and 2nd paadas of sravana that is why
the 27 asterisms are divided as 27 days 7.75 hours ( Rig Veda) 

 
  
All these particulars in detail are given in the book called SANDHYA VANDANAM
published by M/S R.S. VADHYAR & SONS, KALPATHI, PALAKKAD (KERALA) .

 
 
 A Muhurtha is about 1 ½ hours.  Please avoid RAHU KAALA AND YAMA GANDA periods
when performing any auspicious function. (The Yama Ganda ( yemaganda ) is period
of 1hour 30 minutes. this time is ruled by yama in every day of the  weekdays.
this time is considered to be inauspicious to move for any travel. ) Yama Ganda
is not very much used in Kerala.  However , I feel,  this must be observed.

knr


--
If God brings you to it, He will bring you through it.
Happy moments, praise God.
Difficult moments, seek God.
Quiet moments, worship God.
Painful moments, trust God.

  Every moment, thank God